Measles outbreaks: why vaccination hesitancy must be confronted head-on


Viral illness




Kondamudi NP, Waymack JR. Measles. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing 2024.

Laksono BM, de Vries RD, McQuaid S, Duprex WP, de Swart RL. Measles virus host invasion and pathogenesis. Viruses. 2016;8(8). Available from:

Department of Health. Green book of immunisation. 2021.

Proceedings of the Global Technical Consultation to assess the feasibility of measles eradication, 28-30 July 2010. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S4-13. Available from:

World Health Organisation. Measles factsheet 2023. Available from: (accessed 8 February 2024)

Westgeest AC, de Mooij D, Eger CY, et al. Measles outbreaks – potential threat for health care professionals. Infect Prev Pract. 2020;2(3):100074. Available from:

Krawiec C, Hinson JW. Rubeola (Measles). StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 2024.

Leung AK, Hon KL, Leong KF, Sergi CM. Measles: a disease often forgotten but not gone. Hong Kong Med J. 2018;24(5):512-20. Available from:

Lindberg C, Lanzi M, Lindberg K. Measles: Still a significant health threat. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2015;40(5):298-305; quiz E21-2. Available from:

Gadler T, Martinez N, Ogg-Gress J. Recognizing measles, mumps, and rubella in the emergency department. Adv Emerg Nurs J. 2018;40(2):110-8. Available from:

Misin A, Antonello RM, Di Bella S, et al. Measles: an overview of a re-emerging disease in children and immunocompromised patients. Microorganisms. 2020;8(2). Available from:

Perry RT, Halsey NA. The clinical significance of measles: a review. J Infect Dis. 2004;189(Suppl1):S4-S16. Available from:

Wang ME, Ratner AJ. Clinical guideline highlights for the hospitalist: diagnosis and management of measles. J Hosp Med. 2020;15(1):47-8. Available from:

UK Health Security Agency. National measles guideline. 2024. Available from: (accessed 5 February 2024)

NICE. Scenario: management of measles 2023. Available from: (accessed 8 February 2024)

Gregory A. WHO issues measles warning as yearly cases in Europe rise more than 30-fold. The Guardian. 2024.

WHO. A 30-fold rise of measles cases in 2023 in the WHO European Region warrants urgent action. 2024. Available from: (accessed 8 February 2024)

UK Health Security Agency. Measles outbreak could spread warns UKHSA Chief Executive GOV.UK. 2024. Available from: (accessed 5 February 2024)

Iacobucci G. UK childhood vaccination rates fell last year in almost all programmes, figures show. BMJ. 2022;378:o2353. Available from:

NHS Digital. Childhood vaccination coverage statistics- England, 2021-22. 2022. Available from: (accessed 8 February 2022)

GlobaldataHealthcare. Vaccine hesitancy causes cases of measles to rise in UK. 2024. Available from: (accessed 8 February 2024)

Godlee F, Smith J, Marcovitch H. Wakefield’s article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent. BMJ. 2011;342:c7452. Available from:

Motta M, Stecula D. Quantifying the effect of Wakefield et al. (1998) on skepticism about MMR vaccine safety in the U.S. PLoS One. 2021;16(8):e0256395. Available from:

Hoffman BL, Felter EM, Chu KH, et al. It’s not all about autism: The emerging landscape of anti-vaccination sentiment on Facebook. Vaccine. 2019;37(16):2216-23. Available from:

Tennant B, Stellefson M, Dodd V, et al. eHealth literacy and Web 2.0 health information seeking behaviors among baby boomers and older adults. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17(3):e70. Available from:

Desai AN, Majumder MS. What Is Herd Immunity? JAMA. 2020;324(20):2113. Available from: